Introduction of .Net Framework

.NET Framework is a software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows. It includes a large class library. known as Framework Class Library (FCL) and provides language interoperability across several programming languages.Programs written for .NET.
.NET is a framework to develop software applications. It is designed and developed by Microsoft and the first beta version released in 2000. It is used to develop applications for web, Windows, phone. Moreover, it provides a broad range of functionalities and support. This framework contains a large number of class libraries known as Framework Class Library (FCL). The software programs written in .NET are executed in the execution environment, which is called CLR (Common Language Runtime). This framework provides various services like memory management, networking, security, memory management, and type-safety. The .Net Framework supports more than 60 programming languages such as C#, F#, VB.NET, J#, VC++, JScript.NET, APL, COBOL, Perl, Oberon, ML, Pascal, Eiffel, Smalltalk, Python, Cobra, ADA, etc.
11 Programming Languages which are designed and developed by Microsoft are:
• C#.NET
• C++.NET
• J#.NET
• F#.NET
• ASML(Abstract State Machine Language)
To develop all application we need an ide’s (VS version):

Microsoft .NET Framework Versions

Microsoft .NET Framework Versions Year
.NET Framework 1.0 (2002-02-13)
.NET Framework 1.1 (2003-04-24)
.NET Framework 2.0 (2005-11-07)
.NET Framework 3.0 (2006-11-06)
.NET Framework 3.5 (2007-11-19)
.NET Framework 4.0 (2010-04-12)
.NET Framework 4.5 (2012-08-15)
.NET Framework 4.6 (2015-07-20)
.NET Framework 4.7 (2017-04-05)
.NET Framework 4.7.2 (2018-04-30)

Architecture Of .Net Framework

1. Layer1-------Languages(C#,, VC++ etc)
2. Layer2-------Application (windows/web/Mobile)
3. Layer3-------Ado.Net/XML
4. Layer4-------BCL/FCL
5. Layer5-------CLR
6. Layer6-------Operating System
7. Layer7-------Processer

.Net Framework Design Principle

The following design principles of the .Net framework is what makes it very relevant to create .Net based applications.
1. Interoperability
The .Net framework provides a lot of backward support. Suppose if you had an application built on an older version of the .Net framework, say 2.0. And if you tried to run the same application on a machine which had the higher version of the .Net framework, say 3.5. The application would still work. This is because with every release, Microsoft ensures that older framework versions gel well with the latest version.
2. Portability
Applications built on the .Net framework can be made to work on any Windows platform. And now in recent times, Microsoft is also envisioning to make Microsoft products work on other platforms, such as iOS and Linux.
3. Security
The .NET Framework has a good security mechanism. The inbuilt security mechanism helps in both validation and verification of applications. Every application can explicitly define their security mechanism. Each security mechanism is used to grant the user access to the code or to the running program.
4. Memory Management
The Common Language runtime does all the work or memory management. The .Net framework has all the capability to see those resources, which are not used by a running program. It would then release those resources accordingly. This is done via a program called the "Garbage Collector" which runs as part of the .Net framework.
The garbage collector runs at regular intervals and keeps on checking which system resources are not utilized, and frees them accordingly.
5. Simplified Deployment
The .Net framework also have tools, which can be used to package applications built on the .Net framework. These packages can then be distributed to client machines. The packages would then automatically install the application.

.Net Framework provides various services like memory management, networking, security, memory management and type-safety.

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